Jane Williamina Maude Niven1

F, #26401, d. before April 1930
Last Edited17 Apr 2011
     Jane married Edward James Hilliard.1 She died before April 1930.1

Family

Edward James Hilliard
Child

Citations

  1. [S3123] Parish and Notional Records, Name: Ezra John Markus & Spouse: Mary Roberta Hilliard, Québec, Canada, Vital and Church Records (Drouin Collection), 1621-1968, Montreal, QC, Ancestry.com, Provo, Utah, USA. Hereinafter cited as Drouin Collection.

Gustave Zebell1

M, #26402
Last Edited18 Apr 2011
     Gustave married Hannah (?).1

Family

Hannah (?)
Child

Citations

  1. [S1444] Ontario, Canada, Marriages, 1826-1936 (Publisher: Archives of Ontario, Toronto), Archives of Ontario, Ontario, Canada Marriages, 1785-1935; "Ontario, Canada, Select Marriages. Archives of Ontario, Toronto. This database includes images of the registrations. In some cases, alternative images in FamilySearch prvide additional information"; cited as "Ontario Marriages, 1826-1936., William Walter & Augusta Zebell.

Hannah (?)1

F, #26403
Last Edited18 Apr 2011
     Hannah married Gustave Zebell.1

Family

Gustave Zebell
Child

Citations

  1. [S1444] Ontario, Canada, Marriages, 1826-1936 (Publisher: Archives of Ontario, Toronto), Archives of Ontario, Ontario, Canada Marriages, 1785-1935; "Ontario, Canada, Select Marriages. Archives of Ontario, Toronto. This database includes images of the registrations. In some cases, alternative images in FamilySearch prvide additional information"; cited as "Ontario Marriages, 1826-1936., William Walter & Augusta Zebell.

Gottlieb Walter1

M, #26404
Last Edited18 Apr 2011
     Gottlieb married Anna (?) in RussiaG.1

Family

Anna (?)
Child

Citations

  1. [S1444] Ontario, Canada, Marriages, 1826-1936 (Publisher: Archives of Ontario, Toronto), Archives of Ontario, Ontario, Canada Marriages, 1785-1935; "Ontario, Canada, Select Marriages. Archives of Ontario, Toronto. This database includes images of the registrations. In some cases, alternative images in FamilySearch prvide additional information"; cited as "Ontario Marriages, 1826-1936., William Walter & Augusta Zebell.

Anna (?)1

F, #26405
Last Edited18 Apr 2011
     Anna married Gottlieb Walter in RussiaG.1

Family

Gottlieb Walter
Child

Citations

  1. [S1444] Ontario, Canada, Marriages, 1826-1936 (Publisher: Archives of Ontario, Toronto), Archives of Ontario, Ontario, Canada Marriages, 1785-1935; "Ontario, Canada, Select Marriages. Archives of Ontario, Toronto. This database includes images of the registrations. In some cases, alternative images in FamilySearch prvide additional information"; cited as "Ontario Marriages, 1826-1936., William Walter & Augusta Zebell.

William Frederick Draves1,2

M, #26406, b. 16 February 1895, d. 18 April 1973
Father*Frederick Draves1,3
Mother*Alvina Bleasy1,3
Last Edited1 Jan 2018
     William was born on 16 February 1895 in Lyndoch Twp., Renfrew County, Ontario, CanadaG, according to Ontario Birth Registration 033480.3 Alternatively, he was born on 12 February 1896 in Lyndoch Twp., Renfrew County, Ontario, CanadaG.4,1 William married Martha Kelo on 26 April 1918 in Pembroke, Renfrew County, Ontario, CanadaG, according to Ontario Marriage Registration 105913.1,5 He died on 18 April 1973 in Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, USAG, at age 78.2,4
     His name was recorded as Willam Dreves on his birth registration.3

Census Data

     William Draves and Martha Draves appeared on the 1920 Federal Census of Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan, enumerated 6 January 1920, enumerated as a machine (illegible) in an auto factory..5

Family

Martha Kelo b. 7 Dec 1894, d. Sep 1975

Citations

  1. [S1444] Ontario, Canada, Marriages, 1826-1936 (Publisher: Archives of Ontario, Toronto), Archives of Ontario, Ontario, Canada Marriages, 1785-1935; "Ontario, Canada, Select Marriages. Archives of Ontario, Toronto. This database includes images of the registrations. In some cases, alternative images in FamilySearch prvide additional information"; cited as "Ontario Marriages, 1826-1936., William Fredk Draves & Martha Kello (or Kelo).
  2. [S3122] Judi Frew, online http://trees.ancestry.com/tree/11351378, Judi Frew (unknown location), downloaded viewed April 16, 2011, William Frederick DRAVES.
  3. [S1443] Ontario, Canada Births, 1869-1913, online Ontario, Canada Births, Name: William Dreves. Hereinafter cited as ON Births 1869-1913.
  4. [S797] Michigan Death Index, 1971-96, online Michigan Death Index search, Name: William F Draves. Hereinafter cited as Michigan Death Index, 1971-96.
  5. [S3125] William Draves household, Jan 6, 1920 US Census, Washington, DC, USA, Ward 17, Detroit, Wayne, Michigan; Page: 9A; Enumeration District: 534, United States of America, Bureau of the Census; National Archives and Records Administration Roll: T625_816; Image: 426.

Calvin McCabe Bromley1,2,3

M, #26408, b. 13 April 1888, d. 22 December 1970
Father*Thomas Bromley2,4
Mother*Jennie Mccabe2,4
Last Edited24 Sep 2016
     Calvin was born on 13 April 1888 in Pembroke, Renfrew County, Ontario, CanadaG.2,4 Calvin married Caroline Kelo on 8 May 1914 in Port Arthur, Thunder Bay District, Ontario, CanadaG, according to Ontario Marriage Registration 021318.2,4 He died on 22 December 1970 in Peace Arch District Hospital, White Rock, British Columbia, CanadaG, at age 82 of congestive heart failure according to BC Death Registration 70-09-017662. He had been a C.N.R. brakeman between 1913 and 1925. No mention of an occupation after that time.3,4 Calvin McCabe Bromley was buried on 24 December 1970 in Sunnyside Lawn Cemetery, Surrey, British Columbia, CanadaG.3,4

Family

Caroline Kelo b. 25 Jul 1890, d. 17 May 1985

Citations

  1. [S676] (see citation for details), Death Registration (see citation for details) (Sept 11, 2000), British Columbia Archives Web Page - Death Index, unknown repository address, Name: Calvin McCabe Bromley. Hereinafter cited as BC Archives -- Death's Index.
  2. [S1444] Ontario, Canada, Marriages, 1826-1936 (Publisher: Archives of Ontario, Toronto), Archives of Ontario, Ontario, Canada Marriages, 1785-1935; "Ontario, Canada, Select Marriages. Archives of Ontario, Toronto. This database includes images of the registrations. In some cases, alternative images in FamilySearch prvide additional information"; cited as "Ontario Marriages, 1826-1936., Carrie Kello & Calvin Mccabe Bromley.
  3. [S4199] Find A Grave memorial page , Find A Grave, Find A Grave search page; "A database submitted by individuals supposedly of cemetery interments, often from grave memorials or cemetery records and often supplemented by other information, generally without identification of the sources except when a tombstone photo is included."; cited as "Find A Grave., Calvin Mc Cabe Bromley.
  4. [S4431] Calvin McCabe Bromley, Death Registration 1970-09-017662 (23 Dec 1970), Royal BC Museum - Genealogy Collection, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, [http://search-collections.royalbcmuseum.bc.ca/images/… Death Registration Image - Calvin McCabe Bromley]. Hereinafter cited as BC Death Registration - Bromley, CM.

Thomas Bromley1

M, #26409
Last Edited5 Dec 2012
     Thomas was born in EnglandG.2 Thomas married Jennie Mccabe.1

Family

Jennie Mccabe
Child

Citations

  1. [S1444] Ontario, Canada, Marriages, 1826-1936 (Publisher: Archives of Ontario, Toronto), Archives of Ontario, Ontario, Canada Marriages, 1785-1935; "Ontario, Canada, Select Marriages. Archives of Ontario, Toronto. This database includes images of the registrations. In some cases, alternative images in FamilySearch prvide additional information"; cited as "Ontario Marriages, 1826-1936., Carrie Kello & Calvin Mccabe Bromley.
  2. [S4431] Calvin McCabe Bromley, Death Registration 1970-09-017662 (23 Dec 1970), Royal BC Museum - Genealogy Collection, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, [http://search-collections.royalbcmuseum.bc.ca/images/… Death Registration Image - Calvin McCabe Bromley]. Hereinafter cited as BC Death Registration - Bromley, CM.

Jennie Mccabe1

F, #26410
Last Edited5 Dec 2012
     Jennie was born in IrelandG.2 Jennie married Thomas Bromley.1

Family

Thomas Bromley
Child

Citations

  1. [S1444] Ontario, Canada, Marriages, 1826-1936 (Publisher: Archives of Ontario, Toronto), Archives of Ontario, Ontario, Canada Marriages, 1785-1935; "Ontario, Canada, Select Marriages. Archives of Ontario, Toronto. This database includes images of the registrations. In some cases, alternative images in FamilySearch prvide additional information"; cited as "Ontario Marriages, 1826-1936., Carrie Kello & Calvin Mccabe Bromley.
  2. [S4431] Calvin McCabe Bromley, Death Registration 1970-09-017662 (23 Dec 1970), Royal BC Museum - Genealogy Collection, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, [http://search-collections.royalbcmuseum.bc.ca/images/… Death Registration Image - Calvin McCabe Bromley]. Hereinafter cited as BC Death Registration - Bromley, CM.

Thomas Taylor1,2

M, #26411, b. circa 1871
Father*Thomas Taylor2
Mother*Sarah Ann Jaskeys2
Last Edited11 Oct 2011
     Thomas was born circa 1871 in EnglandG.2 Thomas married Clara Kirke on 1 June 1903 in Toronto, York County, Ontario, CanadaG, according to Ontario Marriage Registration 001839.1

Family

Clara Kirke b. c 1877
Child

Citations

  1. [S1443] Ontario, Canada Births, 1869-1913, online Ontario, Canada Births, Name: Thomas Samuel Clarke Taylor. Hereinafter cited as ON Births 1869-1913.
  2. [S1444] Ontario, Canada, Marriages, 1826-1936 (Publisher: Archives of Ontario, Toronto), Archives of Ontario, Ontario, Canada Marriages, 1785-1935; "Ontario, Canada, Select Marriages. Archives of Ontario, Toronto. This database includes images of the registrations. In some cases, alternative images in FamilySearch prvide additional information"; cited as "Ontario Marriages, 1826-1936., Thomas Taylor & Clara Kirke.
  3. [S1444] "Ontario Marriages, 1826-1936", online Ontario, Canada Marriages, 1785-1935: Thomas Samuel Clark Taylor & Viola Martha Hester Yourt.

Clara Kirke1,2

F, #26412, b. circa 1877
Father*Edward Kirke2
Mother*Ann Clarke2
Last Edited11 Oct 2011
     Clara was born circa 1877 in Owen Sound, Grey County, Ontario, CanadaG.2 Clara married Thomas Taylor on 1 June 1903 in Toronto, York County, Ontario, CanadaG, according to Ontario Marriage Registration 001839.1

Family

Thomas Taylor b. c 1871
Child

Citations

  1. [S1443] Ontario, Canada Births, 1869-1913, online Ontario, Canada Births, Name: Thomas Samuel Clarke Taylor. Hereinafter cited as ON Births 1869-1913.
  2. [S1444] Ontario, Canada, Marriages, 1826-1936 (Publisher: Archives of Ontario, Toronto), Archives of Ontario, Ontario, Canada Marriages, 1785-1935; "Ontario, Canada, Select Marriages. Archives of Ontario, Toronto. This database includes images of the registrations. In some cases, alternative images in FamilySearch prvide additional information"; cited as "Ontario Marriages, 1826-1936., Thomas Taylor & Clara Kirke.
  3. [S1444] "Ontario Marriages, 1826-1936", online Ontario, Canada Marriages, 1785-1935: Thomas Samuel Clark Taylor & Viola Martha Hester Yourt.

Edward Kirke1

M, #26413
Last Edited19 Apr 2011
     Edward married Ann Clarke.1

Family

Ann Clarke
Child

Citations

  1. [S1444] Ontario, Canada, Marriages, 1826-1936 (Publisher: Archives of Ontario, Toronto), Archives of Ontario, Ontario, Canada Marriages, 1785-1935; "Ontario, Canada, Select Marriages. Archives of Ontario, Toronto. This database includes images of the registrations. In some cases, alternative images in FamilySearch prvide additional information"; cited as "Ontario Marriages, 1826-1936., Thomas Taylor & Clara Kirke.

Ann Clarke1

F, #26414
Last Edited19 Apr 2011
     Ann married Edward Kirke.1

Family

Edward Kirke
Child

Citations

  1. [S1444] Ontario, Canada, Marriages, 1826-1936 (Publisher: Archives of Ontario, Toronto), Archives of Ontario, Ontario, Canada Marriages, 1785-1935; "Ontario, Canada, Select Marriages. Archives of Ontario, Toronto. This database includes images of the registrations. In some cases, alternative images in FamilySearch prvide additional information"; cited as "Ontario Marriages, 1826-1936., Thomas Taylor & Clara Kirke.

Thomas Taylor1

M, #26415
Last Edited19 Apr 2011
     Thomas married Sarah Ann Jaskeys.1

Family

Sarah Ann Jaskeys
Child

Citations

  1. [S1444] Ontario, Canada, Marriages, 1826-1936 (Publisher: Archives of Ontario, Toronto), Archives of Ontario, Ontario, Canada Marriages, 1785-1935; "Ontario, Canada, Select Marriages. Archives of Ontario, Toronto. This database includes images of the registrations. In some cases, alternative images in FamilySearch prvide additional information"; cited as "Ontario Marriages, 1826-1936., Thomas Taylor & Clara Kirke.

Sarah Ann Jaskeys1

F, #26416
Last Edited19 Apr 2011
     Sarah married Thomas Taylor.1

Family

Thomas Taylor
Child

Citations

  1. [S1444] Ontario, Canada, Marriages, 1826-1936 (Publisher: Archives of Ontario, Toronto), Archives of Ontario, Ontario, Canada Marriages, 1785-1935; "Ontario, Canada, Select Marriages. Archives of Ontario, Toronto. This database includes images of the registrations. In some cases, alternative images in FamilySearch prvide additional information"; cited as "Ontario Marriages, 1826-1936., Thomas Taylor & Clara Kirke.

Otto William Biesenthal1

M, #26417, b. 5 March 1877, d. 3 March 1942
Father*August Ferdinand Biesenthal2,3 b. 29 Sep 1846, d. 4 Nov 1895
Mother*Augusta Hulda Lousie Tiegs2,3 b. 5 Feb 1850, d. 1 Aug 1920
Last Edited13 Mar 2017
     Otto was born on 5 March 1877 in North Algona Twp., Renfrew County, Ontario, CanadaG.2,4,5,3
     Other information from their marriage registration and/or news article about their wedding:
The registration listed the following official witnesses: Minnie Kelow and Harry Allan Brown. His parent(s) were listed as August Biesenthal and Augusta Tiegs. Her parent(s) were listed as William Killow and Augusta Markus.2
Otto married Annie Killow on 31 July 1907 in Wilberforce Twp., Renfrew County, Ontario, CanadaG, according to Ontario Marriage Registration 018726.2 He died on 3 March 1942 in Port Arthur, Thunder Bay District, Ontario, CanadaG, at age 64.1
     As of April 1881, his name was also recorded as Arthur Besenthal according to the 1881 census.3

Census Data

     Arthur Besenthal appeared on the 1881 Canadian Census of Wilberforce and North Algona Twps., Renfrew County, Ontario in the household of his parents, August Besenthal and Augusta Besenthal.3
     Otto Besenthal appeared on the 1891 Canadian Census of Wilberforce and North Algona Twps., Renfrew County, Ontario in the household of his parents, August Besenthal and Augusta Besenthal.5
     Otto W Biesenthal appeared on the 1901 Canadian Census of Renfrew County, Ontario, enumerated 31 March 1901. Otto was enumerated as a farmer and a "Luteran.". As were his widowed mother, Augte Biesenthal and siblings, Anna E Biesenthal, Oskar T W Biesenthal, Lydia E Biesenthal, Charl A A Biesenthal and August R F Biesenthal.4

Family

Anne Kelo b. 27 Feb 1887
MarWitReg
     Other information from their marriage registration and/or news article about their wedding:
The registration listed the following official witnesses: Minnie Kelow and Harry Allan Brown. His parent(s) were listed as August Biesenthal and Augusta Tiegs. Her parent(s) were listed as William Killow and Augusta Markus.2
 
Marriage* Otto married Annie Killow on 31 July 1907 in Wilberforce Twp., Renfrew County, Ontario, CanadaG, according to Ontario Marriage Registration 018726.2 
Child

Citations

  1. [S7453] Jim Buckland, "Rick's Public Home Page - Main Page Please update or correct," e-mail message from email address withheld for provacy (address unknown) to Jim Buckland, Mar 11, 2017, ...Otto William Biesenthal died 3 March 1942 in Port Arthur.( now called Thunder Bay).... Hereinafter cited as "Main Page Please update or correct."
  2. [S1444] Ontario, Canada, Marriages, 1826-1936 (Publisher: Archives of Ontario, Toronto), Archives of Ontario, Ontario, Canada Marriages, 1785-1935; "Ontario, Canada, Select Marriages. Archives of Ontario, Toronto. This database includes images of the registrations. In some cases, alternative images in FamilySearch prvide additional information"; cited as "Ontario Marriages, 1826-1936., Annie Killow & Otto W Biesenthal.
  3. [S6718] August Besenthal household, April 4, 1881 Canada census, Provo, Utah, USA, Wilberforce and North Algona, North Renfrew, Ontario; Page: 15; Family No: 60, Ancestry.com Roll: C-13235.
  4. [S3127] Otto Biesenthal household, APril 9 & 10, 1901 Canada census, Provo, Utah, USA, Wilberforce & Algona North, Renfrew North, Ontario; Page 7, Faamily 53, Ancestry.com Roll: T-6494.
  5. [S6717] August Besenthal household, April 23, 1891 Canada Census, Provo, Utah, USA, Wilberforce & Algona North, Renfrew North, Ontario; Page: 25; Family No: 100, Ancestry.com Roll: T-6365.
  6. [S1443] Ontario, Canada Births, 1869-1913, online Ontario, Canada Births, Name: Biesenthal [I read Alvin Edwin]. Hereinafter cited as ON Births 1869-1913.

Alvin Edwin Biesenthal1

M, #26418, b. 12 October 1909
Father*Otto William Biesenthal1 b. 5 Mar 1877, d. 3 Mar 1942
Mother*Anne Kelo1 b. 27 Feb 1887
Relationship3rd cousin 1 time removed of Richard Graeme Moffat
Last Edited21 Mar 2016
     Alvin was born on 12 October 1909 in Lot 17, Conc 1, Pembroke Twp., Renfrew County, Ontario, CanadaG, according to Ontario Birth Registration 041876.1

Citations

  1. [S1443] Ontario, Canada Births, 1869-1913, online Ontario, Canada Births, Name: Biesenthal [I read Alvin Edwin]. Hereinafter cited as ON Births 1869-1913.

Anna E Biesenthal1

F, #26419, b. June 1880
Father*August Ferdinand Biesenthal1,2,3 b. 29 Sep 1846, d. 4 Nov 1895
Mother*Augusta Hulda Lousie Tiegs1,2,3 b. 5 Feb 1850, d. 1 Aug 1920
Last Edited12 Jul 2017
     Anna was born in June 1880 in Ontario, CanadaG, according to the 1881 census.3 Alternatively, she was born circa 1881 in Ontario, CanadaG, according to the 1891 census.2 Alternatively, she was born on 19 June 1882 in Golden Lake, Renfrew County, Ontario, CanadaG.1,4 Anna married James McDonald on 10 June 1914 in Timiskaming District, Ontario, CanadaG, according to Ontario Marriage Registration 021151.4
     In the obituary of Mary Noack who died 28 April 1932, Mary's sister, Mrs James McDonald was listed as a survivor.5

Census Data

     Annie Besenthal appeared on the 1881 Canadian Census of Wilberforce and North Algona Twps., Renfrew County, Ontario in the household of her parents, August Besenthal and Augusta Besenthal.3
     Annie Besenthal appeared on the 1891 Canadian Census of Wilberforce and North Algona Twps., Renfrew County, Ontario in the household of her parents, August Besenthal and Augusta Besenthal.2
     Anna E appeared on the 1901 Canadian Census of Renfrew County, Ontario, in the household of Otto W Biesenthal.1

Family

James McDonald b. c 1889
Marriage*Anna married James McDonald on 10 June 1914 in Timiskaming District, Ontario, CanadaG, according to Ontario Marriage Registration 021151.4 

Citations

  1. [S3127] Otto Biesenthal household, APril 9 & 10, 1901 Canada census, Provo, Utah, USA, Wilberforce & Algona North, Renfrew North, Ontario; Page 7, Faamily 53, Ancestry.com Roll: T-6494.
  2. [S6717] August Besenthal household, April 23, 1891 Canada Census, Provo, Utah, USA, Wilberforce & Algona North, Renfrew North, Ontario; Page: 25; Family No: 100, Ancestry.com Roll: T-6365.
  3. [S6718] August Besenthal household, April 4, 1881 Canada census, Provo, Utah, USA, Wilberforce and North Algona, North Renfrew, Ontario; Page: 15; Family No: 60, Ancestry.com Roll: C-13235.
  4. [S1444] Ontario, Canada, Marriages, 1826-1936 (Publisher: Archives of Ontario, Toronto), Archives of Ontario, Ontario, Canada Marriages, 1785-1935; "Ontario, Canada, Select Marriages. Archives of Ontario, Toronto. This database includes images of the registrations. In some cases, alternative images in FamilySearch prvide additional information"; cited as "Ontario Marriages, 1826-1936., Anna Biesenthal & James Mcdonald.
  5. [S5459] Mrs. Fred Noack, Ottawa Journal, Ottawa, ON, 29 Apr 1932, Page 23, Column 1 viewed at Newspapers.com,, Obituary: Mrs. Fred Noack née Mary C. Biesenthal; Note that the left edge of this column is torn and missing. Extrapolated text included in square brackets.. Hereinafter cited as Ottawa Journal.

Lydia E Biesenthal1

F, #26420, b. 16 July 1883
Father*August Ferdinand Biesenthal1 b. 29 Sep 1846, d. 4 Nov 1895
Mother*Augusta Hulda Lousie Tiegs1 b. 5 Feb 1850, d. 1 Aug 1920
Last Edited2 May 2016
     Lydia was born on 16 July 1883 in Ontario, CanadaG.1,2 Alternatively, she was born circa 1886 according to her marriage registration.3 Lydia married Carl Jucksch on 20 September 1911 in North Cobalt, Bucke Twp., Nipissing District, Ontario, CanadaG.3
     In the obituary of Mary Noack who died 28 April 1932, Mary's sister, Mrs Charles Jueksch was listed as a survivor.4

Census Data

     Lydia Besenthal appeared on the 1891 Canadian Census of Wilberforce and North Algona Twps., Renfrew County, Ontario in the household of her parents, August Besenthal and Augusta Besenthal.2
     Lydia E appeared on the 1901 Canadian Census of Renfrew County, Ontario, in the household of Otto W Biesenthal.1

Family

Carl Jucksch b. c 1888

Citations

  1. [S3127] Otto Biesenthal household, APril 9 & 10, 1901 Canada census, Provo, Utah, USA, Wilberforce & Algona North, Renfrew North, Ontario; Page 7, Faamily 53, Ancestry.com Roll: T-6494.
  2. [S6717] August Besenthal household, April 23, 1891 Canada Census, Provo, Utah, USA, Wilberforce & Algona North, Renfrew North, Ontario; Page: 25; Family No: 100, Ancestry.com Roll: T-6365.
  3. [S1444] Ontario, Canada, Marriages, 1826-1936 (Publisher: Archives of Ontario, Toronto), Archives of Ontario, Ontario, Canada Marriages, 1785-1935; "Ontario, Canada, Select Marriages. Archives of Ontario, Toronto. This database includes images of the registrations. In some cases, alternative images in FamilySearch prvide additional information"; cited as "Ontario Marriages, 1826-1936., Carl Juckseh & Lydia Biesenthal.
  4. [S5459] Mrs. Fred Noack, Ottawa Journal, Ottawa, ON, 29 Apr 1932, Page 23, Column 1 viewed at Newspapers.com,, Obituary: Mrs. Fred Noack née Mary C. Biesenthal; Note that the left edge of this column is torn and missing. Extrapolated text included in square brackets.. Hereinafter cited as Ottawa Journal.